President Donald Trump and top administration officials were unable Friday to finalize a plan for aiding biofuel -- and quelling corn-belt criticism -- after agricultural groups and farm-state lawmakers said a compromise under consideration would only stoke more anger.

A White House meeting on the issue Friday afternoon ended without agreement on a final package of changes to bolster U.S. biofuel-blending mandates and take other steps to propel corn-based ethanol, despite weeks of negotiations and Trump’s Sept. 2 tweet promising “big” changes within two weeks. The administration will continue to deliberate, according to people familiar with the talks who asked...