Legislation that makes it easier for power plants, factories, and refineries to seek air pollution permits for new and expanded construction won House Energy and Commerce subcommittee approval solely with GOP support.

The panel’s environment subcommittee approved the bill (H.R. 3128) on a vote of 13-9 and sent it for consideration to the full committee, whose leaders haven’t decided yet when they will take up the measure.

The bill may not come before the full...