The U.S. will need to suck carbon out of the air in large quantities to achieve net-zero greenhouse gas emissions by mid-century, and the technology will need significant, targeted federal support to meet the challenge, a new report says.

The federal government should pursue a multi-pronged approach to support direct air capture technologies and ensure they reach the scale at which they’ll be needed to meet national and global climate goals, the Rhodium Group, an independent research firm, says in a May 9 report.

The analysis was commissioned by Carbon180, a climate-focused advocacy group that works on...