Leaving the scientific community out of the EPA’s rulemaking process could spell failure for the agency’s effort to open data up to public scrutiny, the agency’s scientific advisers said June 29.

The Environmental Protection Agency’s Science Advisory Board—whose members advise the administrator on the technical underpinnings of agency actions including regulations—was left in the dark when the agency developed and released its proposal for increasing transparency in the science used for regulations, the board told Administrator Scott Pruitt in a...