Westmoreland Coal Co.'s Oct. 9 bankruptcy filing is the latest in a string of coal company stumbles bucking the Trump administration’s narrative of a fossil fuel revival.

With the Chapter 11 filing of Colorado Springs, Colo.-based Westmoreland, four of the nation’s top 10 biggest coal providers have now sought bankruptcy protection within the last three years.

“It’s a slow-motion collapse,” said Seth Feaster, a data analyst with the...